Affective disorders

Affective disorders


A person can experience a different range of emotions in a day. Mood can also change depending on the environment, events, or how you feel. This is fine. But sometimes the emotional system fails, and affective disorders occur. They are characterized by excessive volatility and instability of mood for no apparent reason. In the evening a person went to bed in an elated, happy mood, and in the morning there is no desire to live and work, the whole world is seen in black colors. If this condition lasts for several weeks or months, then a specialist consultation is needed.

This affective mental disorder, unlike mood swings in a healthy person, does not go away on its own. The patient’s adequate perception of the world and himself is disturbed . Without treatment, he may lose his job, family, friends. In advanced cases, there is a threat to life – suicide.

At risk are people who have close relatives or family members with mood disorders. The first episode can occur at any age. The trigger factor for the manifestation of latent anxiety disorder can be:

stressful situation;
protracted conflict;
mental strain;
physical exhaustion;
infection;
severe intoxication of the body.
Subsequently, episodes of a bad and / or cheerful excited mood arise without an external cause, by themselves. At the same time, the depressive phase is lengthened, that is, the person will be in a depressed mood more and more in time .

Views


Psychiatry refers to affective disorders all mental disorders, which are based on frequent mood changes in the direction of its increase or decrease.

Consider the ones that are most common:

Depression is characterized by a constant feeling of hopelessness and despondency for at least 2-3 weeks. Hobbies and past hobbies do not bring joy. A serious illness that requires a visit to a specialist.
Dysthymia is a chronic type of depression that manifests itself in a daily depressed mood. Symptoms are not as severe as those of a clinical depressive episode. Such a diagnosis is made if despondency and apathy does not leave a person for 2 years or more.
Bipolar disorder is an affective mood disorder that was previously known as “manic-depressive psychosis.” It is characterized by 2 main phases: depressive and manic. They can alternately replace each other or mix into one state. At the same time, the person has signs of depression with motor activity or delusional thoughts.
Cyclothymia is a series of constant changes in mood and physical activity, without going into depression or manic agitation. At the same time, a person is quite capable of maintaining social activity, even experiencing difficulties with well-being. May progress to bipolar disorder if left untreated .
Manic syndrome – this type of disorder is characterized by an agitated state, euphoria, and physical activity. Rapid speech, insomnia, and confusion of thought are common. It proceeds in the form of seizures, the duration of which depends on the stage of the disease.
Anxiety disorder is also distinguished. Its main feature is the constant feeling of anxiety and anxiety for no apparent reason. The group includes various phobias and panic attacks.

Symptoms of mood disorders


External manifestations depend on the type of disorder and the severity of the development of the disease.

Often people with mood disorders do not notice or ignore the symptoms of the disease . This is due to the fact that they have no criticism of their own state. Therefore, it is important to be attentive and caring on the part of loved ones.

The main points to look out for are:

sudden mood swings from “plus” to “minus”, which last from 2-3 weeks to several months;
changes in behavior and perception of yourself and the world around you, for example, an increase in your own importance;
jumps in mental activity and speech: now fast and indistinct, then slow and inhibited.


Consider the signs of mood disorder depending on the mood phase. A depressive episode is characterized by:

nighttime sleeplessness and / or daytime sleepiness;
depressed depressed mood;
apathy;
retardation in movements;
speech is slow;
lack of appetite;
dark thoughts, sometimes of a suicidal nature;
lack of interest in previous hobbies.
With a manic version of the disorder, the opposite signs are observed:

increased appetite;
excessive mobility, lively facial expressions, active gestures;
fast, slurred speech, jumping from one topic to another;
man takes up a large number of cases, but rarely brings them to the end;
increased sexual desire;
high distractibility, inability to concentrate on one thing;
delusional thoughts and ideas regarding their own significance.
In bipolar disorder, a person rushes from one extreme to another. The depressive phase corresponds to the clinical description, and in the manic phase, aggression, reckless actions, and severe irritability can be observed. In this state, a person does not control himself and is capable of harming himself or others.

Correct diagnosis of affective disorders is possible only in consultation with a psychotherapist or psychiatrist. This is because the symptoms of some emotional disorders may overlap with those of other mental illnesses, such as schizophrenia.

It is almost impossible to lower or improve your mood on your own. Episodes will appear more often over time and become longer, therefore it is important to consult a specialist at the initial stage of the disease.

Treatment of affective disorders


The therapy is complex. Initially, it is aimed at stopping an acute depressive and / or manic period. In Depending on the symptoms and their intensity doctor selects the necessary medicines. In most cases, treatment is carried out on an outpatient basis, but in difficult situations, a hospital is recommended.

After stabilization of the state, the patient must undergo psychotherapy. This is individual, group or family therapy. Its purpose is to help a person become aware of the disease, as well as teach behavioral techniques to control their emotional state.

Treatment of affective disorders involves lifestyle changes, namely:

reduction of external stress factors;
proper nutrition;
adequate activity;
avoid mental or physical strain;
elimination of alcohol and other toxic substances.
After the main treatment, supportive therapy for affective disorders is recommended. It is aimed at maintaining a long period of remission and preventing relapse.

Treatment can take several months, but with a timely visit to a doctor, the prognosis is favorable.

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